白宫最新声明:对中国2000亿美元商品加征关税(中英文版)

来源:微信公众号“一瓣” 时间:2018-07-12
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美国贸易代表莱特希泽的最新声明称,已启动对中国另外2000亿美元商品加征关税的流程。在阅读声明之前,我想摘录克鲁格曼的老师,著名经济学家Bhagwati在《今日自由贸易》中评论301条款的一段话:

美国的政策制定者们所考虑的早已不止是这种不同贸易开放度意义上的不公平问题了。他们已经将各国国内政策和制度方面的不对称性提高到不公平贸易的范围中来。实际上,通过臭名昭著的1998年的《贸易和竞争综合法案》(Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness)中的301条款,他们甚至用贸易报复作为威胁手段来要求外国政府和公司跟随他们的做法。因此,301条款赋予了政府一项权利甚至是一项义务,那就是,在美国单方面认为某些国家实施了不合理措施的情况下,可以以所谓的301条款的名义谴责这些国家,并且随之实行关税报复。我称这种做法为激进的单边主义。……这种做法在世界范围内都备受谴责;如今单方面歧视性地使用301条款这一违背现有贸易义务和规则的做法,实际上已被宣布为违反WTO规则。

正文

Statement By U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer on Section 301 Action

美国贸易代表罗伯特·莱特希泽在301行动中的发言

Washington, DC – U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer today released the following statement regarding action under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974:

华盛顿特区,美国贸易代表罗伯特·莱特希泽今天发表了以下关于1974年《贸易法》301条款所采取的行动的声明:

“On Friday, inresponsetounfairChinesepractices, the United States began imposing tariffs of 25 percent on approximately $34 billion worth of Chinese imports. These tariffs will eventually cover up to $50 billion in Chinese imports as legal processes conclude. The products targeted by the tariffs are those that benefit from China’sindustrialpolicy and forcedtechnologytransfer practices.

在星期五, 针对中国不公平的做法, 美国开始对约340亿美元的中国进口商品征收25%的关税。等到法律程序结束, 关税将最终覆盖500亿美元进口自中国的商品。这些目标商品均得益于中国的产业政策和强制性技术转让的做法.

“China has since retaliated against the United States by imposing tariffs on $34 billion in U.S. exports to China, and threatening tariffs on another $16 billion. It did this without any international legal basis or justification.

中国立刻对美国进行报复——对美国出口到中国的340亿美元商品征收关税,并威胁对另外160亿美元商品加征关税。但她这么做,没有依据任何国际法或其他正当理由.

“As a result of China’s retaliation and failure to change its practices, the President has ordered USTR to begin the process of imposing tariffs of 10 percent on an additional $200 billion of Chinese imports. This is an appropriateresponseunder the authority of Section 301 to obtain the elimination of China’s harmful industrial policies. USTR will proceed with a transparent and comprehensive public notice and comment process prior to the imposition of final tariffs, as we have for previous tariffs.

针对中国的报复行为和那些并没有改正的(不公平的)做法, 总统指示美国贸易代表办公室,开启对另外2000亿美元进口自中国的商品征收10% 关税的流程。这是在301条款的授权下,为争取消除中国有害的产业政策的合理做法。在最终征收关税之前, 美国贸易代表办公室将继续发布透明和全面的公众通告和评论, 正如我们以前的做法一样.

“On August 14, 2017, President Trump instructed USTR to begin the Section 301 process. For many years, China has pursued abusive trading practices with regard to intellectual property and innovation. USTR conducted a thorough investigation over an 8-month period, including public hearings and submissions. In a detailed 200-page report, USTR found that China has been engaging inindustrialpolicy which has resulted in the transfer and theft of intellectual property and technology to the detriment of our economy and the future of our workers and businesses.

2017年8月14日, 特朗普总统指示美国贸易代表办公室启动301调查。多年来, 中国在知识产权和创新方面长期从事滥用贸易规则的行为。美国贸易代表办公室进行了为期8个月全面调查, 包括公开的听证会和意见书。美国贸易代表办公室在一份200页详细的报告中指出, 中国一直在使用产业政策, 这导致了对知识产权和技术的转让和盗窃行为, 损害了我们的经济和我们工人和企业的未来。

“USTR’s Section 301 report found that Chinese policies and practices force U.S. innovators to hand over their technology and know-how as the price of doing business in China. China also uses non-economic means to obtain U.S. technology, such as using state-owned funds and companies to buy up American businesses and imposing burdensome intellectual property licensing requirements in China. USTR’s report also found that theChinesegovernment sponsors the outright theft of U.S. technology for commercial benefit. These practices are an existential threat to America’s most critical comparative advantage and the future of our economy: our intellectual property andtechnology.

301报告指出, 中国的政策和做法迫使我们的创新者转让他们的技术和专业知识,以此作为在中国经营的条件。中国还利用非经济手段获得美国的技术, 例如通过国有资金和国有公司购买美国企业,或对美在华企业强加繁琐的知识产权许可要求。报告还指出, 为了获得商业利益,中国政府支持这些直接窃取美方技术的行为。这些做法对美国最关键的比较优势和我们经济未来——我们的知识产权和技术——构成了实实在在的威胁。

“For over a year, the Trump Administration has patiently urged China to stop its unfair practices, open its market, andengagein true market competition. We have been very clear and detailed regarding the specific changes China should undertake. Unfortunately, China has not changed its behavior – behavior that puts the future of the U.S. economy at risk. Rather than address our legitimate concerns, China has begun to retaliate against U.S. products. There is no justification for such action.

过去一年多的时间里, 特朗普政府一直在耐心地敦促中国停止这些不公平的做法, 开放市场,开展真正的市场竞争。对于中国应具体改变的行为, 我们已经非常清楚。不幸的是, 中国并没有改变它的行为,这种行为将美国经济的未来置于危险之中。中国已经开始对美国产品进行报复, 而不是解决我们的正当的担忧。这种报复是没有根据的。

“As in the past, the United States is willing toengagein efforts that could lead to a resolution of our concerns about China’sunfairtrade practices and to China opening its market to U.S. goods and services. In the meantime, we will remain vigilant in defending the ability of our workers and businesses to compete on a fair and reciprocal basis.”

与过去一样, 美国愿意参与能够解决中国不公平贸易行为, 以及促使中国向美国商品和服务开放市场的努力。与此同时, 我们会继续保持警惕, 以维护我们的工人和企业在公平和互惠的基础上展开竞争的能力.

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